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    Amsterdam School of Architecture

    In the streams of different styles of the early twentieth century in Amsterdam one style came to the fore and left a mark on the city as we know it today. It was an Amsterdam School of architecture characterized by it’s traditional outfit and brick details. Here is a brief example of places to visit if you are travelling to Amsterdam.

    1. Eigen Haard Housing / Het Schip (The Ship)

    An apartment building located in the Spaarndammerbuurt district of Amsterdam is the most famous example of the Amsterdam school. Traditional massing, red brick facade, red roof tiles, ladder windows and brick details make this building a succesful example of modern vernacular. The original apartments had flush toilets, gardens on the ground floor and a post office. Designed by Michel de Klerk, built 1917.-1920.

    Photo by Janericloebe 

    2. De Dageraad (The Dawn)

    A complex of social housing designed by de Klerk and Kramer (1920-1923) which is a part of partially executed Plan Zuid (Plan South) designed by Berlage. It’s name (The Dawn) is inspired from the rising sun and is a reference to the socialist moevement of that time. Gently undulating brick work are typicall of the Amsterdam School. You can have a guided tour at the visitor’s centre of De Dageraad.

    Photo by Janericloebe 

    3. Amsterdam’s bridges

    Pet Kramer designed more than 500 bridges but the total number of realized bridges is 220 – 64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park. One of the finer bridges is the P.L. Kramer Bridge located at Amstelkade 1. Here the architect also designed small artisalan bridge houses. Sculpture is designed by Hildo Krop.

    Photo by Janericloebe 

    Waalseilandbrug – Designed by JM van der Mey in 1914 it uses angular arches both on the structure itself and the railing.

    Photo by Amsterdam Municipal Department for the Preservation and Restoration of Historic Buildings and Sites (bMA)

    4. Het Scheepvaarthuis (The Shipping House)

    The building was built as a headquarters of six Amsterdam shipping companies in two phases: 1913 – 1916  and 1926 -1928. It is an luxurious example of the Amsterdam School where architects could design elaborate and rich details as oppised to the social housing of the period. The facades are adotned with exotic sculptures that represent the Dutch colonial empire. Nowdays it is occupied by Grand Hotel Amrâth Amsterdam where you can have a breakfast or a lunch. You can have a guided tour by Amsterdamse School Museum. Designed by  Johan van der MeyMichel de KlerkPiet Kramer.

    Photo by Janericloebe 

    5. The Olympic Stadium

    Designed by Jan Wils and built for  1928 Summer Olympics that were held in Amsterdam. Except for being an example of Amestedam School the stadium is a place where the idea of the Olympic Flame was introduced. An adjacent Marathon tower has four balconies which were used by horn blowers during the Olympic ceremony.

    Photo by Vincent Steenberg

    6. Holendrechtstraat 1-47

    Yet another beautiful Amstedam apartment building with undulating brick walls with the exception it was designed by Margaret Staal-Kropholler, a first female professional architect in the Netherlands. Built in 1923.

    Photo by Janericloebe 

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    Gothic Cathedrals in England

    England is home to some of the most beautiful Gothic cathedrals in the world. During the Middle Ages European society had three social classes known as commoners, nobility and clergy. At that time clergy was the most powerful estate. A well know evidence of this clerical supremacy is kneeling of King Henry IV before the Pope Gregory VII at Canossa in 1077. 

    Most of the influences came from France, but very soon the English developed their own style. The most famous one is the Perpendicular style, converting interior spaces into one vertical expanse.

    After the English Reformation in 16th centry former Catholic cathedrals became Anglican, ending the papal influence in Britain. However, Catholic and Anglican clergy left us with countless invaluable heritage and Cathedrals are one of them.

    1. Bradford Cathedral

    This Cathedral has some of William Morris’ earliest stained glass; built 14th-20th century.

    Photo by Stephen Armstrong

    2. Bristol Cathedral

    The east end of the cathedral is built as a Hall church which means all naves have the same ceiling height. This feature is typical of German architecture and it is rare in Britain; built 13th-19th century.

    Photo by NotFromUtrecht 

    3. Canterbury Cathedral

    The cathedral is famous for being the seat of the first Archbishop in England (6th century), and a place where Thomas Becket was murdered in 12th century, turning it into a pilgrimage destination. Archbishop of Canterbury is also the principal leader of the Church of England; built 11th-19th century.

    Photo by Hans Musil

    4. Carlisle Cathedral

    The cathedral is home to the largest window in the Flowing Decorated Gothic style in England. Built 12th-19th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    5. Chelmsford Cathedral

    Thomas Hooker preached here befoer he fled to America for it’s Puritan views and founder town of Hartford, Connecticut.

    Photo by Diliff 

    6. Chester Cathedral

    It has been a place of worship since Roman times and it houses equisite 14th century choir stalls. Built 11th – 20th century.

    Photo by Stephen Hamilton

    7. Chichester Cathedral

    Next to the cathedral there is a rare medieval hospital dating from 13th century. The cathedral is home to Marc Chagall’s stained glass window and the tomb of Gustav Holst. Built 12th-19th century.

    Photo by Evgeniy Podkopaev

    8. Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford

    One of the smallest cathedrals in England. John Taverner, a famous renaissance composer, served here as an organist. Built 12th-13th century.

    Photo by Newton2

    9. Coventry Cathedral

    The old 14th century gothic cathedral was bombed in a 1940 Coventry blitz by the German Luftwaffe. The new, less charming cathedral was built next to it and completed in 1962. On the wall of the old builng behind the altar there is an inscription by Richard Howard – Father Forgive.

    Photo by Cmglee

    10. Derby Cathedral

    It is a combination of Gothic and Neoclassical style by James Gibbs. The cathedral has the oldes ring of ten bells in the worls (1678). Built 16th – 18th century.

    Photo by

    11. Ely Cathedral

    A monumental combination of Romanesque and Gothic styles has made this cathedral a tourist destination. The most famous feature is the large crossing tower (Octagon). Built 11th-14th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    12. Exeter Cathedral

    The cathedral has the longest uninterrupted medieval vaulted ceiling in the world. Built 12th – 15th century.

    Photo by Peter Broster

    13. Gloucester Cathedral

    The cathedral was a place of pilgrimage in the 14th century as it holds the tomb of Edward II. It was featured in Harry Potter films. Built 11th-15th century.

    Photo by Saffron Blaze

    14. Hereford Cathedral

    An example of Early English Gothic. It is famous for it’s Mappa Mundi, a medieval map of the world dating from 13th century. Built 11th-13th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    15. Leicester Cathedral

    There is a tomb of King Richard III whose remains were discovered nearby. Built 11th-19th century.

    Photo by Peter

    16. Lichfield Cathedral

    This cathedral is the only medieval English cathedral with three spires. Built 12th-14th century.

    Photo by Bs0u10e01

    17. Lincoln Cathedral

    From 14th-mid16h century this huge cathedral was the tallest building in the world. Inside you can find the asymmetrical crazy vaults. Built 12th-14th century.

    Photo by JThomas

    18. Manchester Cathedral

    A fine example of Perpendicular style. Staind glass destroyed in the Manchester Blitz of 1940. has been replaced gradually until the late 1960s. Built 15th-19th century.

    Photo by Peter Siroki

    19. Newcastle Cathedral

    The cathedral features an unusual spire with lantern that served as a main navigation point of ships. Built 12th-16th century.

    Photo by dun_deagh

    20. Norwich Cathedral

    It has one of the largest cloisters in England. In 17th century the cathedral was abandoned for 20 years as a result of religious turmoil. Built 11th-12th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    21. Peterborough Cathedral

    An interesiting example of Early English Gothic as it has gigantic pointed arches on the West Front. Built 12th-13th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    22. Ripon Cathedral

    The church here had been built by Saint Wilfrid in 7th century. Interesting detail is the medieval woodcarving that is believed to have inspired Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland. Built 12th-16th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    23. Rochester Cathedral

    The second oldest of England’s medieval cathderals it is a combination of Norman and Gothic style. Built 11th-13th century.

    Photo by Ray in Manila

    24. Salisbury Cathedral

    The tallest church spire in United Kingdom 404 feet (123m), the world’s oldest working clock (1386) and the best surviving of the four original copies of Magna Carta. Built 13th-14th century.

    Photo by Antony McCallum

    25. Sheffield Cathedral

    The 13th century cathedral has some modernist additions that blend perfectly with the surroundigs. Built 12th-20th century.

    Photo by Ian Parkes

    26. Southwark Cathedral

    It has become a cathedral in 1905 and Shakespeare’s brother was buried inside. Built 12th-19th century.

    Photo by Dmitry Tonkonog 

    27. Southwell Minster

    A great example of Norman architecture. Built 12th-14th century.

    Photo by DeFacto 

    28. St Albans Cathedral

    Mostly Norman/Romanesque style this cathderal has the longest nave in England. Roman bricks were used to build a crossing tower. Built 12th-19th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    29. St Edmundsbury Cathedral

    The gothic cathedral has a new crossing tower. Work started in 2000 and it wasc completed 2005. Blends perfectly. Built 16th-21th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    30. St George’s Chapel, Windsor

    It is a part of Windsor castle, a burial place for monarchs and an example of perpendicular architecture. The quire has an impressive display of heraldry. Built in 14th century.

    Photo by Jack Pease

    31. Wakefield Cathedral

    The tallest spire in Yorkshire and the City of Wakefield (247-foot (75 m)). Built 14th-20th century.

    Photo by Stephen Bowler

    32. Wells Cathedral

    One of the first Gothic structures in Europe and UK. You can admire St. Andrew’s cross arches or Chapter house with a unique central column supporting the vaults. Built 12th-15th century.

    Photo by Diliff 

    33. Westminster Abbey

    Founded by the Benedictines it has been a coronation church since 1066. Since 1560 the building is no longer a cathedral becoming a Royal Peculiar . It is a burial place for seventeen monarchs and it has been a place for at least 16 royal weddings since 1100. Built 10th-19th century.

    Photo by Gordon Joly

    34. Winchester Cathedral

    The longest nave of any Gothic cathedral in Europe. Inside you can admire the High Altar ornate screen. Built 11th-19th century.

    Photo by WyrdLight.com

    35. Worcester Cathedral

    It represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic. The first performance of the Elgar’s revised version of his Enigma Variations took place here. Built 12th-16th century.

    Photo by Dave Grubb

    36. York Minster

    The cathderal is famous for it’s preserved medieval stained glass. The Great East Window is the world’s largest medieval stained glass window. Built 13th-15th century.

    Photo by MatzeTrier

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    Must-See White Architecture in Algiers

    Often reffered to as “Algiers the White” because of its beautiful white facades with blue shutters this city is an example of a Muslim Mediterranean city. Casbah quarter, atrium houses, markets, merchant’s palaces and beautifully crafted moques all represent a counter-part to it’s European twins on the north like Barcelona or Marseille. If you decide to visit the citiy, here is what Algiers architecture you have to see:

    1. National Theater of Algiers

    The original building was expanded in 1860, 1871 and in 1882 after the great fire. Designed by F. Chassériau and Ponsard, 1853.

    Photo by Chris Hunkeler

    2. Algiers Prefecture

    Known as Wilaya building this white building is situated on the old harbour and is best seen from the sea. Designed by F. Henri Petit in Neo-Moorhish style, 1904.

    Photo by OMAR-DZ

    3. Grand Post Office

    The Grand Post Office is one of the symbols of Algiers. It was one of the most important institutions of the French colonial rule. Designed by Voinot and Tondoire in Neo-Moorhish style, 1913

    Photo by Ludovic Courtès

    4. Hotel Albert Le 1er

    Here you will notice a mediterranean influence of white walls and blue shutters. It is one of those buildings Algiers is called a “White city”. Built in 1930.

    Photo by BigBadi

    5. Central Faculty of Algiers

    Designed by Louis Dolphin and Henry Petit, 1879. Labyrinths and amphitheaters designed by Jean-Jacques Deluz. Restored in 1963 by Georgette Cottin.

    Photo by Yelles

    6. Civic House

    The building hosts an exhibition hall a ballroom, a theater, a conservatory and an art gallery. Designed by Léon Claro, 1935.

    Photo by Yves Jalabert

     

    7. Maqam Echahid

    An grand monument paying tribute to the Algerian war for independence. It is designed in the shape of three standing palm leaves which make a form of the “Eternal Flame”. Designed by Bachir Yellès, Marian Konieczny, 1982.

    Photo by David Bjorgen

    8. Notre Dame d’Afrique

    The famous inscription on the apse says: “Our Lady of Africa, pray for us and for the Muslims”. Designed by Jean-Eugène Fromageau, 1872.

    Photo by Magharebia 

    9. The Great Mosque

    A fine example of Almoravid architecture in Algeria. The building first completed in 1097, in 1324 the minaret was added and in 1840 the Gallery outside.

    Photo by Benzita Abdelhadi

    10. Palais des Raïs

    The palace is a complex of different pieces built in different periods. The most imposing part of the palace is the Ottoman layer. Built 16-18th centuries.

    Photo by Mimosa dz

    11. Ketchaoua Mosque

    The beautiful mosque is situated in the Casbah quarter and was built by the Ottomans. During the French Colonial ruel it was converted into a cathedral until 1962, when it was converted back into a mosque. Completed in 1612.

    12. Djama’a al-Djedid Mosque

    Another example of Ottoman architecture in Algiers. It has a 24 meters high dome and barrel vaulted ceilings in the interior. Completed in 1660.

    Photo by Deezy31

    13. Random residential buildings

    Remnants to the French rule these beautiful buildings speak the language of Haussmann, Art Deco and Revival styles.

    Photo by Damouns (Damien Boilley) from France

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    Paris Rooms With the Eiffel Tower View

    The Eiffel Tower View

    What if you wanted to sit, relax and have a breakfast with the Eiffel Tower view? Then you shoud check the list below.

    Built as a temporary installation it has become the best known landmark in Paris and in the world.  You won’t notice this while you are eating breakfast at your Paris balcony but it is one of the buildings that increases in height over time. Every summer, the building registers an increase of 6-15 centimeters a result of thermal expansion of its metal.

    1. Shangri-La Hotel Paris

    Designed by Ernest Janty and completed in 1896. as the palace of Roland Bonaparte, grandnephew of Napleon Bonaparte. Soon it becam a meeting place of the Parisian elite society. Nowdays the interior was immaculately designed by architect Richard Martinet and interior designer Pierre-Yves Rochon.

    Hotel Shangri La
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Shangri La

    10 Avenue d’Iéna, shangri-la.com

    2. Pullman Paris

    Hotel Pullman is a very good choice if you want to be really, really close to the Eiffel Tower. The hotel is 11 storeys high so you will have nice panoramic views from the rooms. There is a nice view on Trocadero gardens from the fitness room also.

    Hotel Pullman
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Pullman

    18 avenue de Suffren, Entrée au 22 rue Jean Re, Pullman.com

    3. Hôtel Plaza Athénée

    Designed by architect Charles Lefèvre the hotel was opened in 1913. It’s Eiffel Suite Art Deco Suite has possibly the most perfectly framed view of the Eiffel Tower. It is considered to be one of the finest hotels in Paris and  In 1946, in close proximity to the Plaza Athénée, at 30 Avenue Montaigne, Christian Dior established The House of Dior and a new era began. Avenue Montaigne quickly turned into the avenue of ‘haute couture’ and the Plaza Athénée became Paris’ focus for fashion and the arts.

    Hotel Plaza Athenee
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Plaza Athenee

    25 Avenue Montaigne, dorchestercollection.com

    4. Hotel Le Walt

    This beautiful Haussman era building has stylish interiors designed by Paul Sartre with rooms overlooking the Eiffel Tower.. Here you will find charming interiors with old school paintings and contemporary details.

    Hote Le Walt
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Le Walt

    37 Avenue de la Motte-Picquet, lewaltparis.com

    5. Hotel Duquesne Eiffel

    The Duquesne Eiffel hotel was built in 1797 on the site of the former powder magazine that exploded in 1794. It was not until the early 20th century that it became a tourist hotel. If you are not in the room with a viev on Eiffel tower you can observe the exposed beams and stone walls of the lounge, and the magnificent vaulted cellars.

    Hotel Duquesne
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Duquesne

    23 Avenue Duquesne, hotel-duquesne-eiffel-paris.com

    6. Hotel Radisson Blu Le Metropolitan

    This picturesque corner building is overlooking Place de Mexico and it has a axial, almost strategic position with a view on Eiffel Tower across the Seine. There is an oval window on the rooftop whose axial view on the Tour Eiffel is very charming. The interior was designed by François Champsau.

    Hotel Radisson Blu Le Metropolitan
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Radisson Blu Le Metropolitan

    10 Place de Mexico, hotellemetropolitanparis.com

    7. Hotel Montaigne

    The hotel is situated in the 8th districst and it is surrounded with couture shops, museums and theaters, but most important it has rooms with a perfect view on the Eiffel Tower. The interior is designed by Pierre-Yves Rochon.

    6 Avenue Montaigne, montaigne-hotel.com

    8. La Bourdonnais

    The Hotel offers both views on the Eiffel Tower and the story of Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, a famous French East India Company naval officer. The interior with warm earth colors was designed by Oscar Ono who was inspired by Bourdonnais’ travels.

    Hotel La Bourdonnais
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel La Bourdonnais

    111-113 av. de la Bourdonnais, hotellabourdonnais.com

    9. Splendid Etoile

    This Hotel is placed just beside Arc d’ Triomphe and it has views on the Eiffel Tower from the top floors. Here you can enjoy views of the two most famous symbols of Paris. The elegant Haussmann building was built in 1879.

    1 avenue Carnot, www.hsplendid.com

    10. Hôtel San Régis

    The building was built in 1857 as a private home and by 1923 it has become a hotel. Since then it has become a popular destination to many VIP guests. Nothing to wonder about since the hotel offers views on the Eiffel tower and has unique designs foreach room.

    12 rue Jean Goujon, hotel-sanregis.fr

    11. The Peninsula Paris

    Designed by Admand Sibien and completed in 1908. The hotel housed many famous guests like Pablo Picasso and George Gershwin.

    Hotel Peninsula
    Photo Courtesy of Hotel Peninsula

    19 Avenue Kléber, paris.peninsula.com

     

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    Exploring Art Deco Architecture in Havana, Cuba

    Art Deco

    It is not a secret the the United States had a big influence in the early days of Cuban independence (and before). When you mix that with Hispanic sense of art and architecture and a tropical climate what you get is a colorful nation like Cuba and Art Deco in Havana. Exploring Havana is like entering a time capsule. Not only the city is one of the best preserved colonial cities of the Americas, but it is one of the top Art Deco destinations. While Europe in 1920s had early modernism, Cuba had Art Deco art executed with luxurious materials and pastel colors.

    1. Bacardi Building

    Designed by Rafael Fernández Ruenes, Esteban Rodríguez Castell and José Menéndez , 1930.

    Photo by James Emery

    2. Teatro Fausto

    Designed by Saturino Parajon, 1938. It was the first theatre in Havana to have air-conditioning

    Havana Art Deco. #havana #cuba #artdeco #deco #teatrofausto

    A post shared by Claudia Chan Shaw (@claudiachanshaw) on

    3. Teatro America

    Designed by Fernando Martinez Campos and Pascual de Rojas, 1941.

    In the 20s and 30s there was an influx of USA films that helped spread it’s influence in Cuba.

    #ASundayCarPic

    A post shared by Privatmensch (@dasvitamin) on

    4. Lopez Serrano Building

    Designed by Ricardo Mira and Miguel Rosich, 1932.

    5. Casa de las Americas

    Designed by Ramón del Busto, 1953 (Art Deco renovation)

    Photo by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose

    6. La Moderna Poesia

    Designed by Ricardo Mira, 1941.Photo by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose

    7. Hotel Nacional

    Designed by McKim, Mead and White, 1930.

    Photo by momo

    8. La Casa de la Amistad (Casa Lasa / Baró)

    Designed by Evelio Govantes and Félix Caborrocas, cca 1926.

    because of this photo, our next trip is def going to be CUBA! JUST GORGEOUS.

    A post shared by DESIGN HAUS (@designhaus.nyc) on

    9. Catalina Lasa and Juan Pedro Baró Mausoleum

    Designed by René Lalique, 1930

    Photo by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose

    10. José Martí Memorial, Havana

    Designed by team of architects led by Raoul Otero de Galarraga, 1958.

    Photo by Cabrera Photo

    11. Solomon Kalamanowitz House

    Designed by Angel López Valladares, 1936.Photo by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose

    12. Teatro Sierra Maestra

    Designed by Evelio Govantes and Felix Cabarrocas, 1932.

    13. Miguel de Soto Methodist Church, Havana

    Designed by Ricardo Franklin, 1950.

    14. Modelo Brewery, Havana

    Designed by Enrique Luis Varela, 1948.

    15. El País newspaper building, Havana

    Designed by Cristóbal Díaz and Rafael de Cárdenas, 1941

    Random Art Deco buildings

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    Photos by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose

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    40 Examples of Brutalism in Europe

    Although Europe of the mid 20th century was divided it shared common aesthetics. All over Europe new governmental, institutional or social housing buildings began to emerge. While in the West Brutalism was an ethic (instead of aesthetic) of the new conscious generation of architects who where straight forward and rational in the Eastern Bloc it was the symbol of the new, progressive society. Meanwhile it has become a popular way to say a building is unpopular so one thing is sure – Brutalism is not everyone’s cup of tea

    Hint: The term originates from the French word for „béton brut“ – raw concrete, a term that was often used by Le Corbusier.

    1. Albania

    Tirana, Pyramid of Tirana / Enver Hoxha Museum. Designed by Pirro Vaso, Klement Kolaneci, Pranvera Hoxha, and Vladimir Bregu, 1988.

    Photo by Internauten Basis

    2. Andorra

    Andorra la Vella, Capitol Building

    Photo by © Google

    3. Austria

    Vienna, Wotrubakirche. Designed by Fritz Wotruba, finished by Fritz G. Mayr, 1976.

    Photo by Funke

    4. Belarus

    Minsk, National Library of Belarus. Designed by Mihail Vinogrdov, Victor Kramarenko. Designed in 1989 – Built in 2002-2006.

    Photo by Andrii Zymohliad

    5. Belgium

    Harelbeke, Saint Rita Church. Designed by by Léon Stynen and Paul Demeyer, 1966.

    Photo by © Google

    6. Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Tjentište, The Battle of Sutjeska Memorial Monument Complex in the Valley of Heroes. Designed by Miodrag Živković & Ranko Radovic, 1971.

    Photo by marguerite

    7. Bulgaria

    Shumen, Shumen Monument. Designed by Krum Damyanov and Ivan Slavov, 1981.

    Photo by Klearchos Kapoutsis

    8. Croatia

    Podgarić, Monument to the Revolution of the People of Moslavina. Designed by Dušan Džamonja, 1967.

    Photo by tomislav medak

    9. Czech Republic

    Prague, Czechoslovak Federal assembly. Designed by Karel Prager, 1974.

    Photo by © Google

    10. Denmark

    Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital. Designed by Gehrdt Bornebusch in collaboration with Max Brüel and Jørgen Selchau, 1975.

    Photo Jakob Steenberg

    11. Estonia

    Tallin, National Library. Designed by Raine Karp, 1985–1993.

    Photo by Erkki Lindpere

    12. Finland

    Vaasa, Huutoniemi Church. Designed by Aarno Ruusuvuori,1964.

    Photo by Kotivalo 

    13. France

    Paris, Les Choux de Créteil. Designed by Gerard Grandval, 1969 – 1974.

    Photo by Paul Fleury

    14. Georgia

    Tbilisi, Georgia Ministry of Highways. Designed by George Chakhava and Zurab Jalaghania, 1975.

    Photo by Tinalomidze7 

    15. Germany

    Velbert, Neviges Pilgrimage Church / Nevigeser Wallfahrtsdom. Designed by Gottfried Böhm, 1963-68.

    Photo by seier+seier

    16. Greece

    Elliniko, Athens, Main Building of Hellenikon Airport. Designed by Eero Saarinen, 1959-63.

    17. Hungary

    Budapest, Szell Kalman Ter Metro station (formerly Moszkva Ter). Designed by Czeglédi István, Székely László, 1972.

    Photo by Christo

    18. Iceland

    Reykjavík, Bakkaflöt 1 House. Designed by Högna Sigurðardóttir, 1968.

    Photo by The National Architectural Heritage Board 2009 (CC BY 3.0)

    19. Ireland

    Dublin, US Embassy. Designed by JM Johansen, 1963.

    Photo by © Google

    20. Italy  

    Fregene, Casa Sperimentale. Designed by Giuseppe Perugini, late 1960s.

    Photo by © Google

    21. Kosovo

    Mitrovica, Shrine to the Revolution (Monument to Fallen Miners). Designed by Bogdan Bogdanović, 1973.

    Photo by Adam Jones, Ph.D.

    22. Latvia

    Jūrmala, Dubulti Station. Designed by Igors Javeins, 1977.

    Photo by © Google

    23. Lithuania

    Druskinninkai, former Balneological Hospital. Designed by, A. and R. Silinskas, 1981.

    Photo by © Google

    24. Macedonia (FYROM)

    Skopje, Central Post Office. Designed by Janko Konstantinov, 3 stages (1974, 1982 and 1989).

    Photo by Dan

    25. Moldova

    Chișinău, the “Romanita” Collective Housing Tower. Designed by Oleg Vronsky, 1978.

    26. Montenegro

    Kolašin, Spomen Dom. Designed by Marko Mušič, 1967.

    Brutalizm.

    A post shared by Marko (@boiling_point) on

    27. Netherlands

    Delft, Auditorium Building, Delft University of Technology. Designed by Van den Broek & Bakema, 1959-1966.

    Photo by Nol Aders

    28. Norway

    Suldal kommune, Rogaland, Suldal I hydro power station. Designed by Geir Grung, 1965.

    Photo by David Aasen Sandved

    29. Poland

    Kraków, Forum Hotel. Designed by Janusz Ingarden, 1978-1989.

    Photo by Błażej Pindor

    30. Portugal

    Lisbon, Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Designed by Ruy Jervis d’Athouguia, Pedro Cid and Alberto Pessoa, 1968.

    Photo by Mark Ahsmann

    31. Romania

    Bucharest, “Blocul Rotund” (Round building). Designed by D. Bădescu, 1978.

    #bloculrotund #socialmodernism

    A post shared by cecilia fossati (@i.hate.sunshine) on

    32. Russia

    St. Petersburg, Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics. Designed by B. I. Artiushin and S. V. Savin, 1987.

    Photo by Aleksandr Zykov

    33. Serbia

    Belgrade, Genex Tower. Designed by Mihajlo Mitrovic, 1980.

    Photo by Błażej Pindor

    34. Slovakia

    Bratislava, Slovak Radio Building. Designed by Štefan Svetko, Štefan Ďurkovič and Barnabáš Kissling, 1983.

    Photo by Thomas Ledl 

    35. Slovenia

    Ljubljana, Republic Square Skyscrapers. Designed by Edvard Ravnikar, 1983.

    36. Spain

    Madrid, Torre Blancas. Designed by Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oiza, 1969.

    Photo by Xauxa Håkan Svensson

    37. Sweden

    Stockholm, Bank of Sweden. Designed by Peter Celsing, 1976.

    Photo by Arild Vågen

    38. Switzerland

    Chur, Holy Cross Church. Designed by Walter M. Förderer, 1969.

    Photo by Sebastian F

    39. Ukraine

    Kiev, Crematorium. Designed by Abraham Miletsky, 1975.

    Photo by localmodrnts

    40. United Kingdom

    London, The Alexandra Road estate. Designed by Neave Brown, 1970s.

    Photo by Banalities

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    Everything You Need To Know Before Visiting Villa Tugendhat

    Brno is a gem. The historic city in Czech Republic bears characteristic Central European patterns like bieber tile rooscapes, spiky gothic cathedral, counter-reformation baroque and multiethnic history. Wandering around Brno you will see a lots of high-quality 20ies and 30ies architecture, but one house exceeds them all. It is Villa Tugendhat, designed by German architect Mies van der Rohe in 1929.

    Villa Tugendhat

    Villa Tugendhat is considered a masterpiece for it’s spatial layout, technical equipment and setting in the landscape.

    For the first time in the history of modern architecture, idea of new living was realized, based on the new theory of freely floating space in the house and its relationship to its surroundings. Tugendhat’s felt that the greatest, spiritual, quality of their home emerges from lofty space itself rather than luxurious materials.

    Also, for the first ime in history of architecture, a steel load-bearing structure was used in a private house. That shiny cross-shaped steel column has become a trademark of Mies. He used it in another masterpiece of his one year before – Barcelona Pavillion (1929).

    The house was built for Greta and Fritz Tugendhat, a German Jewis businessman family, who were the second richest family in Czechoslovakia at the time. When Mies came to Brno he was impressed by the position of the site with the historic Brno skyline and by the supreme standard of Brno architecture in general. Very soon he accepted the commission. Tugendhat family respected his vision and made no alteration to the house once it was finished. This helped the house to be inscribed on the UNESCO list.

    © Architectourist

    The Building

    If you decide to visit the Villa you will start at the housekeeper’s flat on the upper terrace that is connected to the garage (with an old-timer inside). The so called „staff section“ is where you can find the current ticket and guide’s office. On the opposite side you will see a milk glass wall with the entrance doors. This is where you enter the third floor with private sleeping rooms. Here you can best see the beautiful skyline of Brno with Šiplberk Castle and Cathedral of Saint Peter and Paul. Now you can imagine how Mies felt when he first saw it.

    The interior can appear a bit austere, but still it is a house that inspires so many architects today. Mies did not imagined the old school paintings on the walls, because he preffered the texure of the material, so the family removed them when he came to visit. His onyx plates where placed symmetrically to emphasize it’s symmetrical pattern abstraction (broaching technique).

    The second floor holds the famous living room with floating spaces. No walls here except the onyx partition, Makassar ebony curved wall and load bearing steel columns. The space here is arranged solely by furniture. The huge round table could take up to 24 people and it rests on a steel leg that is constructed just like the load bearing columns. The table is famous for it is a place where Czechoslovakia dissolution act was signed. An important aspect of the living room is a panoramic garden view, a modern idea of blending the interior and exterior. A grassy meadow garden was also designed by Mies in cooperation with Marketa Roderova-Mullerova, a Brno garden architect.

    Mies also designed all the furniture, of which the Tugendhat Chair and the Brno Chair are still manufactured.

    Below are the technical room which includes the room where living room glazed walls go down, heating, laundry and a fur room. The house has it’s own ventilation system. Partial air cooling and moisturising takes place in ashower chamber with stone boulders onto which water falls from water pipes. That air is then driven by the ventilation system to the main living room. Tugendhat family sometimes used different scents and aromas. 

    © Architectourist

    The History

    Tugendhat family fled Czechoslovakia in 1938 due to the circumstances in Germany at that time. They went to Sankt Gallen in Switzerland. Meanwhile in 1939 the Villa was taken by Gestapo and in 1942 it became the property of Nazi Germany. But, the worst was yet to come.

    Soviet cavalry entered Brno in 1945 and the glazed walls were broken due to bombardment. A neighbour, Vlasta Hvozdecká also recalls: They created a stable for their horses from the magnificent social rooms! …the large window panes smashed with glass everywhere along with horse manure as the entire Villa had been used for housing horses.

    After the war the Villa was used as a dancing school and a rehabilitation center for children with spine defects until 1960s. In 2001 it was listed on UNESCO’s List of World Heritage Sites in Europe. The UNESCO committee declared Villa Tugendhat guilty as charged: The building provides an example of a higher standard of living from the 20th century inter-war period, showing the lifestyle of a cultured, wealthy and modern-thinking level of society.

    Visiting Information

    To be able to visit Villa Tugendhat make sure you book your guiding tour at least 2-3 months in advance HERE. If you are not lucky to get the ticket you can always visit the garden for a small fee. To check opening hours and, basic information or read the complete history visit the official website www.tugendhat.eu. The house is also a part of the Ionic Houses project, a network connecting architecturally significant houses.

    How to visit the site:

    The city is the capital of Moravia region and it is easily accessible from Prague, Bratislava, Vienna or Budapest by train or bus. If you are in the region and would like to visit UNESCO sites or early modern architecture sites it would be wise to visit Brno.

    Take trams 3,5 (going to northeast direction) at Česka station (close St. Thomas Church) and get of at Dětská nemocnice station. Then walk up the Černopolni street.

    Take tram 9 (going to northeast direction) at Hlavní nádraží and get of at Lesnicka street. Then walk down Tomanova street.

    Hint 1: To better understand the background of the owners visit Löw-Beer villa at Drobného 297/22, just beneath the Villa Tugendhat. It is where Greta’s father had his house. He gave his daugther a lot just behind the Löw-Beer villa and soon Villa Tugendhat was built there.

    Hint 2: While you wait for your guding tour you can have a delicious meal at the nearby functionalist Era cafe at Zemědělská 1686/30.

    Hint 3: If you plan to take photos It is best to visit at morning time as the street facade will be lit by sun.

    Villa Tugendhat on a MAP

    © Architectourist
    © Architectourist
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    15 Gothic Inspired Skyscrapers to Visit in the USA

    1. General Electric Building

    A place where Art Deco and Gothic Revival merge to create a powerful design. It was built for the RCA Records radio company so you can find a lot of design details that symbolizes electricity and radio. The finest example is the neo gothic tracery on the top of the octagonal tower that represents electricity and radio waves. The tracery is lit by night so you can make some nice photos here. Designed by John W. Cross, completed in 1931.

    Photo by Chris06

    Location: 570 Lexington Avenue, New York

    2. 75 Livingston Street, New York (Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce Building)

    Built as an office building it was converted into a residential tower in 1981. This corner building takes advantage of its position to build a mass of rotated and indented volumes that create a vertical tempo. Also, there are many interesting gothic details – take a look a the the building’s portal. The tower is part of the Skyscraper Historic District in Brooklyn and it was designed by Ukranian born architect Abraham J. Simberg.

    Photo by GrissJr

    Location: 75 Livingston Street, New York

    3. Bush Tower

    Initially it was built as a commercial meeting space but in 1938 it was converted to offices. The architects of this skyscraper wanted to make a model for a narrow building within the block so, naturally, they opted for Gothic Revival. The upper zone of the skyscraper makes an octagonal form so together with the lateral lightwell with a pointed arch it can resemble an unfinshed gothic cathedral. Designed by Helmle & Corbett and completed in 1918.

    Location: 130-132 West 42nd Street, New York

    4. 40 Wall Street, New York

    For a brief moment in time it was the tallest building in the world (927 feet (283 m)) until it was surpassed by Chrysler building one month later. It is one of those skycrapers who suffered a plane crash – in 1946 a light aircraft crashed into the 58th floor making a hole in the wall. The building is really tall and all the gothic details are placed on the crown so prepare some long range photo lenses to enjoy the details. Designed by H. Craig Severance and Yasuo Matsui, completed in 1930.

    Photo by ChrisRuvolo

    Location: 40 Wall Street, New York

    5. 90 West Street (West Street Building)

    Notice how the building tries to achieve verticallity with facade piers and a grand steep mansard roof. Lots of gothic details in the roof zone. Designed by H. Thomas O’Hara, completed in 1907.

    Photo by Fletcher6

    Location: 90 West Street, New york

    6. Randolph Tower

    The tower was built for the Steuben Club to promote German-American heritage in 1929. It has a massive base and an elegant octagonal tower with buttresses that arises at the corner. The facade is clad in terra-cotta with elaborate gothic details. Designed by Karl M. Vitzthum, completed in 1929.

    Location: 188 W. Randolph St, Chicago

    7. Tower Life Building

    This corner building has an irregular plan with an octagonal tower that has become the city crown of San Antonio. Gothic masters preffered octagons because it was the most efficient transition between a square base and a circular dome. Gothic Revival architects used it because eight edges would improve the vertical tempo and make the building appear more slender. The facade here is clad with brick and terra-cotta and it has gargoyles on the upper zone. Designed by Ayres–Ayres, completed in 1929.

    Photo by Leaflet

    Location: 310 S St Mary’s St, San Antonio

    8. Cadillac Tower (Barlum Tower)

    The Cadillac Tower could be described as an vertical box with a gothic terra cotta facade. Gothic details appear at the top of the building and t the ground floor where you can notice neo gothic arches resembling Tudor arches. Designed by Bonnah & Chaffee and Otto Misch Co., completed in 1927.

    Photo by Andrew Jameson

    Location: 65 Cadillac Square, Detroit

    9. Cathedral Building (Federal Realty Building)

    This building is one of those corner triangular buildings that seem to enchant tourists and photographers. It houses both condos and offices and despite its neo gothic facade it was built with concrete. The steep roof with turrets gave the building’s appearance that led to the „Cathedral Building“ nickname in 1969. Designed by  Benjamin Geer McDougall and completed in 1914. SocketSite has a small article on the building’s interior here.

    Photo by Sanfranman59

    Location: 1615 Broadway,Oakland, California

    10. Cathedral of Learning

    This 535 feet (163 m) tall Pittsburg landmark is know for being the second tallest gothic styled building in the world and the tallest education building in the Western hemisphere. Pretty good reasons to use steel frame structure. It is the administrative center of the Pittsburgh University campus. The Cathedral of Learning houses 30 Nationality Rooms that pay tribute to different cultures that influenced Pittsburg’s growth. Designed by Charles Klauder and finished in 1934.

    Photo by Notyourbroom

    Location: 4200 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh

    11. McAllister Tower Apartments

    What makes this skyscraper really interesting is the fact it was concieved as a church and a hotel. The investors had a plan to merge Methodist Episcopal congregations in San Francisco into one space and decided to add the hotel too. Unfortunately the hotel did not attract enough guests so the Church had to leave. In 1978 it was bought by University of California and refurbished into student apartments. Today you can still see the former church facade with pointed arches. The former church entrance is blocked with planters. Designed by Miller & Pflueger and Lewis P. Hobart, completed in 1930.

    Photo by Beyond My Ken

    Location: 100 McAllister Street, San Francisco, California (corner building)

    12. PPG Place

    This gothic revival jewel clad in glass clearly inspired by London’s Houses of Parliament was built as the headquarters of former  Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. Since PPG manufactures glass plates the choice to use glazed walls seemed obvious. This led to using almost one million square feet of PPG reflective glass. To further enhance the vertical tempo the whole facade has bay windows that end up as spires. If you are an architectural photographer you will love this building for its magnificent reflections during dawn and dusk. Designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee completed in 1984.

    Photo by Derek Jensen (Tysto) 

    Location: 600 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

    Website: http://www.ppgplace.com/

    13. Tribune Tower

    One of the most famous landmarks in Chicago is 462 feet (141 m) tall Tribune Tower, named after the most-read daily newspapers in the city. The design competition held in 1922 attracted many notable architects like Adolf Loos Walter Gropius and Bruno Taut. The winners were  John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood and the building was completed in 1925. The design was inspired by the south tower of Rouen Cathedral (Tour de beurre). To make it more interesting the lower levels have incorporated stones from the world’s famous buildings like the Great Pyramid or the Great Wall of China. Learn more on the offical website.

    Photo by Potro

    Location: 435 N. Michigan Ave. Chicago

    14. New York Life Insurance Building

    It is the second and the last building built in neo-gothic style by Cass Gilbert, the architect who is famous for designing the Woolworth Building. The skyscraper is  615 feet (187 m) tall and it is topped with a copper roof covered with gold leafs, later replaced by ceramic tiles. 72 gargoyles can be found on this skyscraper inspired by Salisbury cathedral. Completed in 1928.

    Photo by ButtonwoodTree 

    Location: 51 Madison Avenue, New York

    15. Woolworth Building

    One of the most famous skyscrapers in New York. At the time of completion in 1912 the skyscraper was the tallest building in the world (792 feet (241 m)) until the construction of 40 Wall Street and Chrysler building in 1930. The buliding resembles a squeezed gothic cathedral with a tower rising on the east facade. The whole structure was built with steel frames and clad in terra cotta. The ground level contains a richly ornate lobby with vaulted ceiling. Designed by Cass Gilbert and completed in 1912.

     

    Photo by chrisinphilly5448

    Location: 233 Broadway, Manhattan, New York

     

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