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40 Examples of Brutalism in Europe

Country by Country

Although Europe of the mid 20th century was divided it shared common aesthetics. All over Europe new governmental, institutional or social housing buildings began to emerge. While in the West Brutalism was an ethic (instead of aesthetic) of the new conscious generation of architects who where straight forward and rational in the Eastern Bloc it was the symbol of the new, progressive society. Meanwhile it has become a popular way to say a building is unpopular so one thing is sure – Brutalism is not everyone’s cup of tea

Hint: The term originates from the French word for „béton brut“ – raw concrete, a term that was often used by Le Corbusier.

1. Albania

Tirana, Pyramid of Tirana / Enver Hoxha Museum. Designed by Pirro Vaso, Klement Kolaneci, Pranvera Hoxha, and Vladimir Bregu, 1988.

Photo by Internauten Basis

2. Andorra

Andorra la Vella, Capitol Building

Photo by © Google

3. Austria

Vienna, Wotrubakirche. Designed by Fritz Wotruba, finished by Fritz G. Mayr, 1976.

Photo by Funke

4. Belarus

Minsk, National Library of Belarus. Designed by Mihail Vinogrdov, Victor Kramarenko. Designed in 1989 – Built in 2002-2006.

Photo by Andrii Zymohliad

5. Belgium

Harelbeke, Saint Rita Church. Designed by by Léon Stynen and Paul Demeyer, 1966.

Photo by © Google

6. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Tjentište, The Battle of Sutjeska Memorial Monument Complex in the Valley of Heroes. Designed by Miodrag Živković & Ranko Radovic, 1971.

Photo by marguerite

7. Bulgaria

Shumen, Shumen Monument. Designed by Krum Damyanov and Ivan Slavov, 1981.

Photo by Klearchos Kapoutsis

8. Croatia

Podgarić, Monument to the Revolution of the People of Moslavina. Designed by Dušan Džamonja, 1967.

Photo by tomislav medak

9. Czech Republic

Prague, Czechoslovak Federal assembly. Designed by Karel Prager, 1974.

Photo by © Google

10. Denmark

Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital. Designed by Gehrdt Bornebusch in collaboration with Max Brüel and Jørgen Selchau, 1975.

Photo Jakob Steenberg

11. Estonia

Tallin, National Library. Designed by Raine Karp, 1985–1993.

Photo by Erkki Lindpere

12. Finland

Vaasa, Huutoniemi Church. Designed by Aarno Ruusuvuori,1964.

Photo by Kotivalo 

13. France

Paris, Les Choux de Créteil. Designed by Gerard Grandval, 1969 – 1974.

Photo by Paul Fleury

14. Georgia

Tbilisi, Georgia Ministry of Highways. Designed by George Chakhava and Zurab Jalaghania, 1975.

Photo by Tinalomidze7 

15. Germany

Velbert, Neviges Pilgrimage Church / Nevigeser Wallfahrtsdom. Designed by Gottfried Böhm, 1963-68.

Photo by seier+seier

16. Greece

Elliniko, Athens, Main Building of Hellenikon Airport. Designed by Eero Saarinen, 1959-63.

17. Hungary

Budapest, Szell Kalman Ter Metro station (formerly Moszkva Ter). Designed by Czeglédi István, Székely László, 1972.

Photo by Christo

18. Iceland

Reykjavík, Bakkaflöt 1 House. Designed by Högna Sigurðardóttir, 1968.

Photo by The National Architectural Heritage Board 2009 (CC BY 3.0)

19. Ireland

Dublin, US Embassy. Designed by JM Johansen, 1963.

Photo by © Google

20. Italy  

Fregene, Casa Sperimentale. Designed by Giuseppe Perugini, late 1960s.

Photo by © Google

21. Kosovo

Mitrovica, Shrine to the Revolution (Monument to Fallen Miners). Designed by Bogdan Bogdanović, 1973.

Photo by Adam Jones, Ph.D.

22. Latvia

Jūrmala, Dubulti Station. Designed by Igors Javeins, 1977.

Photo by © Google

23. Lithuania

Druskinninkai, former Balneological Hospital. Designed by, A. and R. Silinskas, 1981.

Photo by © Google

24. Macedonia (FYROM)

Skopje, Central Post Office. Designed by Janko Konstantinov, 3 stages (1974, 1982 and 1989).

Photo by Dan

25. Moldova

Chișinău, the “Romanita” Collective Housing Tower. Designed by Oleg Vronsky, 1978.

26. Montenegro

Kolašin, Spomen Dom. Designed by Marko Mušič, 1967.

Brutalizm.

A post shared by Marko (@boiling_point) on

27. Netherlands

Delft, Auditorium Building, Delft University of Technology. Designed by Van den Broek & Bakema, 1959-1966.

Photo by Nol Aders

28. Norway

Suldal kommune, Rogaland, Suldal I hydro power station. Designed by Geir Grung, 1965.

Photo by David Aasen Sandved

29. Poland

Kraków, Forum Hotel. Designed by Janusz Ingarden, 1978-1989.

Photo by Błażej Pindor

30. Portugal

Lisbon, Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Designed by Ruy Jervis d’Athouguia, Pedro Cid and Alberto Pessoa, 1968.

Photo by Mark Ahsmann

31. Romania

Bucharest, “Blocul Rotund” (Round building). Designed by D. Bădescu, 1978.

#bloculrotund #socialmodernism

A post shared by cecilia fossati (@i.hate.sunshine) on

32. Russia

St. Petersburg, Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics. Designed by B. I. Artiushin and S. V. Savin, 1987.

Photo by Aleksandr Zykov

33. Serbia

Belgrade, Genex Tower. Designed by Mihajlo Mitrovic, 1980.

Photo by Błażej Pindor

34. Slovakia

Bratislava, Slovak Radio Building. Designed by Štefan Svetko, Štefan Ďurkovič and Barnabáš Kissling, 1983.

Photo by Thomas Ledl 

35. Slovenia

Ljubljana, Republic Square Skyscrapers. Designed by Edvard Ravnikar, 1983.

36. Spain

Madrid, Torre Blancas. Designed by Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oiza, 1969.

Photo by Xauxa Håkan Svensson

37. Sweden

Stockholm, Bank of Sweden. Designed by Peter Celsing, 1976.

Photo by Arild Vågen

38. Switzerland

Chur, Holy Cross Church. Designed by Walter M. Förderer, 1969.

Photo by Sebastian F

39. Ukraine

Kiev, Crematorium. Designed by Abraham Miletsky, 1975.

Photo by localmodrnts

40. United Kingdom

London, The Alexandra Road estate. Designed by Neave Brown, 1970s.

Photo by Banalities

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